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Monitors for PC PART-1- All You Need To Know

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Monitors for Personal computers
Monitors for Personal computers

When we first see a computer we see to its monitor.Without monitors for PC, computer is only a box of electronic components. 

It is the only things which gives us our desired output and help us monitoring our job in computer.

If we are unable to get the output from computer, than it is useless for us. So, it is the most important component of our computer. My article is about “Monitors for PC Part-1”.

MONITORS FOR PC (PART-1)

So lets get into the topic and exlpore more about Monitors for PC.

What is a monitor?

It is one of the output devices of a computer. It gives the output in a visual manner called display.  Out of all the output devices monitor is the mostly used output device.

Monitor from its word we can think of what it is for. Monitors for PC defines something to keep a through watch on ongoing task or job. 

The same thing is done by a monitor. The monitor keeps watch on the computer and tells users about its health and ongoing job inside a computer. It is also known as video display terminal (VDT).

HISTORY OF MONITORS FOR PC :

Early computers were fitted with a panel of electric bulbs, where the state of each particular bulb would indicate the on/off state of particular bits of registers inside the computer. 

This type of monitoring was developed by the engineers operating the computer to monitor the internal state of the machine, so this panel of lights gradually known and called as ‘monitor’.

EARLY MONITORS FOR PC :

CATHODE RAY TUBE TECHNOLOGY (CRT MONITORS)

CRT

In early monitors for PC electric bulbs were used. Gradually the monitor changed its shape and cathode ray tubes (CRT) were used inplace of bulbs.  ). 

Prior to the general purpose computers in the late 1970s, it was common for a terminal (VDT) using a CRT to be physically integrated with a keyboard and other components of the system in a large chasis.

Some of the earliest computers like TRS-80 and C PET were having monochrome CRT display.

In the year 1977 colour features are introduced in CRT displays by Apple in their computer Apple II.

After that more graphically represented and sophisticated monitors for PC introduced in market.

First monitors for PC were introduced for data processing but gradually they were made to entertain the users. 

After 1980 we can see  a new era of monitors which were not only used for data processing but for entertainment purpose like TVs.

In 1981 IBM introduced the CGA (Colours graphics adapter) which could display four colors with a resolution of 320 x 200 pixels, or could produce 640 x 200 pixels with two colors.

In 1984 IBM introduced the EGA (Enhance graphics adapters) which was capable of producing 16 colors and had a resolution of 640 x 350.

Towards the end of the 1980s color CRT monitors that could clearly display 1024 x 768 pixels were widely available and very affordable.

The dynamic range of early LCD panels was very poor, and although text and other motionless graphics were sharper than on a CRT, an LCD characteristic known as pixel lag caused moving graphics to appear noticeably smeared and blurry.

1980s onwards, computers (and their monitors) have been used for both data processing and entertainment, while televisions have implemented some computer functionality in them too.

The common aspect ratio of televisions, and computer monitors, has changed from 4:3 to 16:10, to 16:9.

We will later know about what is aspect ratio.

Liquid crystal display technology  (LCD MONITORS)

Monitors for PC - LAPTOP

 

LCD monitors are those monitors which are using Liquid crystal display technology.

The first TFT-LCD display panel was prototyped by United States T. Peter Brody and team in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Throughout the 1990s, the primary use of LCD technology as computer monitors was in laptops.

Because of  lower power consumption, lighter weight, and smaller physical size of LCDs it was costlier than CRT. This was only used in Laptops.    

The first standalone LCDs appeared in the mid-1990s selling for high prices.

As prices declined over a period of years they became more popular, and by 1997 were competing with CRT monitors.

Among the first desktop LCD computer monitors for PC was the Eizo L66.

In the mid-1990s, the Apple Studio Display in 1998, and the Apple Cinema Display in 1999. In 2003,

TFT-LCDs (Thin film transistor- LCD) outsold CRTs for the first time, and becoming the primary technology used for computer monitors.

Advantages of LCD over CRT:

The main advantages of LCDs over CRT displays are:

  • LCDs consume less power,
  • take up much less space,
  • considerably lighter.
  • Active matrix TFT-LCD technology also has less flickering than CRTs, which reduces eye strain.

High dynamic range (HDR) technology has been implemented into high-end LCD monitors to improve color accuracy.

Since around the late 2000s, widescreen LCD monitors have become popular, in part due to television series, motion pictures and video games transitioning to high-definition (HD), which makes standard-width monitors unable to display them correctly as they either stretch or crop HD content. 

Other advantages of widescreen monitors over standard-width monitors is that they make work more productive by displaying more of a user’s documents and images, and allow displaying toolbars with documents.

They also have a larger viewing area, with a typical widescreen monitor having a 16:9 aspect ratio, compared to the 4:3 aspect ratio of a typical standard-width monitor.

CURRENT MONITORS:

 

LIGHT EMITTING DIODE TECHNOLOGY(LED MONITOR):
 

Monitors for PC- LED

Light emitting diode monitors are those monitors using light emitting diode technology with a flat screen and flat panel.

The first LED DISPLAY  is considered to be developed BY  James P. Mitchell in the year 1977.

 

Difference between LCD and LED monitor is the backlighting. LCD uses CCFL instead of LEDs.

 

Advantages of LED than LCD:

·      More compact and thinner

·      Less expnsive

·      Broader dimming range

·      More durable

·      Run at a lower temperature

·      Consume less power as few as 20 watts

·      Higher dynamic contrast ratio

·      Less environmental impact

 

ORGANIC LIGHT-EMITTING DIODE TECHNOLOGY (OLED MONITORS)

 

OLED

An organic light-emitting diode (OLED or Organic LED), monitor is a monitor using organic-LED technology.

The principle of this technology is that when current flows between a cathode and an anode, an emissive layer of organic molecules like polyanilin sandwiched between them become illuminated.

PMOLED:

Passive matrix OLED screens consists of cells with opaque cathodes and transparent anodes laid perpendicular to one another in strips

AMOLED:

Active Matrix OLED. These type of screens are having cells contains molecule layers and anodes  arranged in small sheets (pixels), sandwiched between a large cathode sheet and integrated into TFT matrix. 

Because of TFT matrix are more efficient than external circuits of PMOLED displays, AMOLED is extremely energy efficient in comparison.

In future we can see transparent displays or foldable displays using TOLED and FOLED technology.

Advantages:

1. No backlight required

2. Very thin transparent film than other monitos

3. Less power consumption than all monitors

4. Very high Contrast and real colour

5. Response time of 0.01MS

6. Refresh rate exceeding 1KHZ (1000hz) possible

7. Viewing angles

8. Flexible and transparent

Disadvantages of OLED:

Organic materials used in OLED display degraded over time, like other organic material.

Blue emissive pixels degraded more rapidly than their red and green counterparts, which leads to color balance issues.

Image retention issue, problem arises in static content display for an extended period. This problem can not be noticed in moving contents like TVs but for PCs it will be of serious concern.

Advancements in OLED:

Spray organic materials onto substrate surface and by using slightly different molecules, so that life time of blue pixels could be extended from 14000 to 60000 Hours or (approx 07 YEARS). It is called solution coating technology.

During trade shows SONY and Panasonic unveiled prototypes of large OLED displays with 4K (4096X 2160) resolutions. These monitors uses a technology called “SUPER TOP EMISSION” which incorporates an RGB pixel design and color filters.

QLED a non organic LED technology which will increase the life span of monitors and reduce the color degradation issues of future monitors.

Also some companies are working on hybrid technologies of monitors like QD-OLED, which is a mix of non organic and organic material use in LED cathode substrate.

 So future of monitors in coming ages will be more interesting and amazing.

For more on monitors read my next blog.

Have a great day!

HDD or SSD- Which is better A Complete Study

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Which is better HDD OR SSD
Which is better HDD or SSD

Which hard disk is good as per our requirement HDD or SSD. 

Hard disks are very important in todays life style. Everything we want to store in large capacity is possible because of these two types disks. So we will know through this article Which is better HDD or SSD.   

HDD OR SSD- WHICH IS BETTER 

Both these drives HDD or SSD are available in market as external storage drives and internal storage drives. 

For internal storage of computers and laptops internal drives are used and for storing data outside computer we are using external storage drives HDD or SSD type.

Internal drives are fitted in computer mother board or circuit board. But external drives are created with casing over the drive and USB interface for connecting to computer and laptop.

Let me explain the features of HDD from HDD or SSD. HDD is a type of storage device. HDD first invented by IBM in the year 1953. Its first commercial use is started in the year 1957. 

It created a new level in the computer data hierarchy. Basically HDD divided into two categories. One is external storage device and another one is internal. 

In laptops or desktops internal HDD or SSD are used. These are open and not in their casing.

But for other storage purposes we can use external storage devices if our system data capacity is low or about to fill.  

You can get HDD external storage devices of various ranges starting from 256 GB, 500GB, 1TB , 2TB and upto 12TB in market.

But in today’s technology all requirements are based on fastness and durability.

Now question will come which is more durable and faster than HDD?

The answer to this question is SSD. SSD stands for Solid state drives. In future HDD will be replaced by SSDs. Because SSDs are faster and durable.

So today we are going to compare the two types of storage drives which are commonly used to store the data permanently in desktop and the laptops.

 Now, conventionally these hard disk drives are used as a storage solution in desktop and the laptop. 

And these hard disk drives are in use for more than two decades. But in recent years, the SSDs or solid state drives are gaining the popularity because of its speed and the performance.

Let’s compare these two drives in aspects like speed and performance, working principle, cost and the storage capacity and many other aspects.

Now we will compare some of its overall aspects of HDD or SSD:

Aspect HDD SSD
Access time(in ms) 100 0.1
Speed of reading (in MB/Sec)  50- 100 200-500
Weight (in gm) 500 50
Power consumption (Watt) 65 3
Price of unit (500 gb) (in Rs.) 1250 7250

Now we will compare the aspects thoroughly to have a better picture of HDD or SSD.

SPEED AND PERFORMANCE

HDD OR SSD

So, first of all, let’s compare these two drives in terms of their speed and the performance.

 Now, the technology of hard disk drive has improved significantly over the past two decades.

And the data density of this drive has increased tremendously. But the speed of hard disk drive hasn’t increased at the same pace. 

Typically, the access time of today’s hard drive is in the range of few ms. And the sequential read or write speed is typically around 100 MBPS.

If you are thinking the speed of the hard drive is not bad then let me tell you that the access time of RAM and the cache memory which is used in the computer is in the range of nanoseconds. 

Which is significantly less than the access time of these hard drives.

So, even if you have very high-end CPU, coupled with graphics card and RAM, still you will not be able to extract the best performance out of that system if you are stuck with the slow hard disk drives.

Now, here don’t get me wrong, with the use of top CPU and GPUs, the performance of the system will definitely increase. 

But because of the limitation of the hard drive, the system boot time and the opening of the applications will not be that fast.

While on the other end, if we talk about the SSDs, they are much faster and have access time typically in the range of microseconds. And typical sequential read and write speed is in the range of 400 to 500 MBPS.

 In fact, even it is possible to achieve the sequential read and write speed in the range of Giga Bytes per second using this SSDs.

INTERNAL STRUCTURE

HDD OR SSD- SSD INTERNAL STRUCTURE

HDD OR SSD- STRUCTURE OF HDD

So, now let’s look into the internal structure of these drives and let’s find out why SSDs are so fast and hard disk drives are relatively slow in comparison to these SSDs. 

So, if you look inside the hard disk drive, it consists of rotating disk, which is commonly known as the platters.

So, these platters rotate at the typical speed of 5400 or 7200 RPM in laptops. 

And it can go up to 10000 RPM in desktop computers. And in some enterprise hard disk, the speed can go up to 15000 RPM.

So, in these hard disk drive, the data is stored magnetically on these platters using the head. Typically the data is stored in this hard disk drive in form of tracks and the sectors. 

Now, as it involves the mechanically moving parts, there is a limitation on the speed at which the data can be accessed or written on these hard disk drives.

On the other end, the SSDs are designed using the flash memory. And to be precise if I say, they are designed using the NAND flash memory. 

So, as these SSDs are designed using the NAND flash memory, and does not have any moving part, they have very fast access time and very low latencies.

 So, apart from the flash memory, the SSD also contains the micro controller and the small cache memory. So, using the micro controller, the flash memory cells can be accessed or programmed. 

And using the cache memory it is possible to store the incoming and the outgoing data temporarily.

FORM FACTORS

Ok, so now let’s compare the two drives in terms of the form factor. Today’s hard disk drives are typically available in two form factors. 

For desktop, it is available in 3.5-inch form factor, while for a laptop it is available in 2.5-inch formfactor.

On the other end, the SSDs are available in many form factors. The most common is the 2.5-inch form factor, where these drives can be used or replaced in place of hard disk drives.

 Apart from these, the mSATA and the M.2 SSDs are available in very small form factors. And they are used in ultra books and tablets.

SYSTEM INTERFACE

 Alright, so now let’s compare these two drives in terms of the system interface. The system interface defines how these drives are connected or interfaced with the system.

So, the earlier hard drives were connected to the system using the PATA interface. Which is known as the parallel ATA.

But today’s hard drives are connected to the system using the SATA interface. While enterprise hard drives are connected to the system using the SAS protocol.

On the other end, if we talk about the Solid  State Drives, mSATA and SATA hard drives are connected to the system using SATA interface. 

While M.2 SSD can communicate with the system using either SATA or PCI express bus.

STORAGE CAPACITY

So, now if we compare these drives in terms of the storage capacity then for the hard disk drive, 1TB capacity is most common in desktops and laptops. 

But for desktops, even 10 Tera Bytes of hard drives are commonly available in markets.

If we talk about the SSDs, then as of now the SSDs are available from 120GB up to 4TB. 

For laptops typically, it is available from120 GB up to 1TB. While for the desktop it is available up to 4TB.

COST FACTOR

But if we talk about the cost, then these SSDs are much costlier than the hard disk drives.

As of now the cost per Giga Bytes for SSD is almost 3 to 4 times the hard disk drive cost.

But as the demand of SSD is growing, the cost is also reducing. And perhaps one day, it will become as cheap as the today’s hard disk drives.

POWER CONSUMPTION

So, now let’s compare these drives in terms of the power consumption and the reliability. 

These hard disk drives involves the mechanical moving part the power consumption of this drive is more than the SSDs.  

Because of this reason laptops with HDD configuration make sounds and uses more power than the SSD fitted laptops. 

SSD fitted laptops are consuming less power than the HDD configured laptops.

ROUGH USAGE

As we know that HDD are having a number of moving parts which are prone to damage and unserviceable at the time of accidental fall or rough usage.

But we know that SSD are having no moving parts in its core or structure. 

So SSDs are less prone to damage and unserviceable at the time of accidental fall or during rough usage.

DATA DURABILITY

So, in terms of the data durability, hard drives are more durable and data can be stored for longer times without being powered up.

 Apart from that as we have seen, these SSDs are designed using the flash memory. And because of that the number of programs or erase cycles that can be performed on these SSDs are limited.

Typically, it used to be in the range of 10000 to 100000. And depends upon the quality of the controller as well as the internal structure of the flash memory.

Now, some manufacturers also provide the endurance rating for these SSDs. Typically it is defined by the term drive writes per day. 

It means that the number of times the user capacity of the drive can be written per day over the warranty period. 

For example, if you have 100GB of a drive, which has DWPD rating of 10, it means that 1000GB or 1TB of data can be written in to this drive every day over the warranty period. So, basically, this term defines the endurance rating for the SSDs.

But for most of the users, this rating is quite significant. And even if someone uses this SSD quite extensively then also it will work reliably over more than 5 years.

To know about internal structure of HDD and SSD visit my previous blog “05 LATEST COMPUTER STORAGE DEVICES IN 2020”.

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES

So, overall SSDs have many advantages over the hard disk drives. But as of now, these SSDs are quite costlier than the hard disk drives.

 So, if someone is looking for big storage pull, with the reasonable cost then he can go for the hard disk drive. 

While on the other end, if someone wants very fast performance and willing to pay extra money for that performance then one can go for the SSDs.

I hope you understood the basic differences between the SSD and hard disk drive in this article Which is better HDD or SSD. 

So, if you have any question or suggestions do let me know in the comment section or mail to me.

For more knowledge on different storage devices read my previous blog on “05 LATEST COMPUTER STORAGE DEVICES IN 2020”.

Now you have indepth knowledge of HDD or SSD. So now you know How to have a Fantastic HDD OR SSD With Minimal Spending.

Have a great day!

BEST HDD AND SSD TO BUY FROM AMAZON

BEST EXTERNAL SSD FOR LAPTOPS/COMPUTERS

5 types of storage devices- All You Need To Know

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5 types of computer storage devices
5 types of computer storage devices

05 TYPES OF STORAGE DEVICES 

Storage devices are very important for todays life style. At each and every moment we are using different types of storage devices. 

Starting from our mobile to computer and TV, everything is fitted with some kind of storage device.

So today we will learn about 5 types of computer storage devices. How  we keep our important data safe in our computer with the help of these storage devices.

When we listen the word of data, in our mind we make a picture of disk drives.  These drives are mainly called Storage Devices.

In our day to day life we come across different kinds of Storage Devices like CD, DVD, pen drives, hard disk etc.

We can store a different quantity of data as per size of the storage device.

Different sizes of storage devices are as follows:

Type of storage device Capacity
CD 700 MB
DVD 4.7 GB
Pendrives 1GB TO 128 GB
Hard disks/drives 256 GB TO 12 TB
SSD 128GB TO 4TB

In computer algorithm everything is calculated by binary system. In binary system the following formulae work.

1Byte= 8 Bit

1KB= 1024 Byte

1 MB= 1024 KB

1GB= 1024 MB

1TB= 1024 GB

KB- Kilobyte, MB – Megabyte, GB- Gigabyte, TB- Terabyte.

From above description we know that TB is the largest unit and bit is smallest unit. When we will purchase any storage device can see its specifications related to capacity of the device.

Storage devices are basically divided into two types.  One type is called internal drives and another one is called external storage devices.

Internal Storage is used inside the computer to work like it’s memory.  Whereas External Storage is basically used for storing our valuable data.

In internal storage, computer uses data read and writing method to save its internal programs and other handy information we are working with the help of computers. Like RAM and ROM.

RAM (Random access memory) 

RAM is a volatile memory which is used by computer as work on memory. 

Every time we are switching on the system it gets activated and starts its job of read and writing. 

But when we switch of the system all the data we are working are getting erased by computer. For more knowledge of RAM, visit my previous blogs.RAM

In lame language it is a white board where we write and clean every time before and after each switching on/off of computer. 

So we have to save our projects/ files during working to avoid loss of data. When we save the data it goes to ROM.

ROM (Read only memory) 

It is a nonvolatile memory which is used by system to keep the data safe after switching off of computer. 

All our work, files, songs, videos, etc are getting saved in to this device. Computers operating system is also loaded in this storage medium. 

At the time of starting computer operating system from this device is getting loaded to RAM and then the system boots itself. 

So it is very much important part of our computer. It is also known as Hard disk drives or HDD.

External storage devices

CD (Compact discs) , DVD (Digital versatile discs) , Pen drives, External Hard disks  are commonly used as our external storage.

CD (Compact discs)

STORAGE DEVICES-cd

These are the circular discs of very less capacity about 700 MB.

These are of two types one is called CD-R (CD – Read only) and CD-RW (CD- Rewritable). 

In CD-R we can not over write any data but in CD-RW we can rewrite by erasing previous data and reuse it.

Most of a CD is made from a tough, brittle plastic called polycarbonate

Sandwiched in the middle there is a thin layer of aluminum. Finally, on top of the aluminum, is a protective layer of plastic and lacquer.

The data on a CD is encoded in the form of small pits and bumps in the track of the disc.

DVDs (Digital versatile discs)

STORAGE DEVICES-DVD

Digital versatile discs are also circular discs of very thin plate like CD. But the storage capacity is high upto 4.7GB.

These are of two types one is called DVD-R (DVD – Read only) and DVD-RW(DVD- Rewritable).

 In DVD-R we cannot over write any data but in DVD-RW we can rewrite by erasing previous data and reuse it.

DVDs are also created with the same technology as of CDs. A DVD disk has several layers, which are made of plastic

Thickness of DVD is about 1.2 millimeters. An injection used on a polycarbonate plastic leads to the creation of microscopic bumps.

The data on a DVD is encoded in the form of small pits and bumps in the track of the disc.

Pen drives

PEN DRIVE

These are also called USB flash drives. It came to the market from the year 2000 onwards. 

Most of the pen drives in the starting phases was from 4 GB. 

But today you can find flash drives of about 2TB capacity easily in the market.

It comes with the chip technology and write erase cycle of approximately 1,00,000 cycles.

All USB drives are comprised of five essential components. These five components are:

STORAGE DEVICES- INTERNAL STRUCTURE

  1. Standard USB Plug- It connects drive with external interphase
  2. USB Mass Storage Controller- It controls Drive
  3. NAND Flash Memory Chip- It is the storage area
  4. Crystal Oscillator-
  5. Cover- It protects the drive
  6. LED- to show switching on/off

HDD (Hard disk drives)

HDD

HDD really changed the way we think about computers.

It is invented over 50 years ago and in market for common use after year 1980s.

The main parts of a HDD are as follows

INTERNAL STRUCTURE

(i)   Actuator: It moves the read-write arm. 

As their name suggests, these are simple electromagnets, working rather like the moving coils that make sounds in computer.

They position the read-write arm more quickly, precisely, and reliably than stepper motors and are less sensitive to problems such as temperature variations.

(ii)  Read-write hand:  It swings read-write head back and forth across platter.

(iii) Central spindle: It allows platter to rotate at high speed.

(iv) Magnetic platter:  It stores information in binary form.

(v)  Plug connections : It links hard drive to circuit board in personal computer.

(vi) Read-write head: It is a tiny magnet on the end of the read-write hand.

(vii) Circuit board:  It controls the flow of data to and from the platter.

(viii)      Flexible connector: It carries data from circuit board to read-write head and platter.

(ix) Small spindle: It  allows read-write arm to swing across platter.

HDDs are worked on principles of magnetism. It is made of large shiny, circular, plates of magnetic materials called platters. 

These platters are disks made from glass, ceramic and aluminium which is coated with a thin layer of metal that can be magnetized or demagnetized.

It is again sub divided into internal and external storage HDDs.

Internal HDDs are used inside the desktop PCs or laptops and are the main source of system memory in computer.

External HDDs are mainly used to store data outside the computer. It is the same HDD but with a USB port for connecting computer and a casing to safeguard it from dust and accidents.

SSD (Solid state Drives)

SSD

These are the drives which are created mainly using the flash memory technology. 

SSDs typically use  flash memory chips instead of spinning magnetic platters. 

Computer makers gradually moving away from hard drives, to SSDs.

These flash chips are of a different type than the kind used in USB thumb drives, and are typically faster and more reliable. Power consumption is minimal to zero at the time of use. 

Less sound by the drive and computer. Faster uploading and downloading of data from SSD.

Main Parts of SSD are:

SSD INTERNAL

(i)   NAND Flash memory chips- It stores data

(ii)  SSD Controller- It controls the data flow from flash memory chip

(iii) SATA and power supply- It connects with circuit board and supply power to the drive

(iv) Config and general I/O- It helps in configure of  the SSD

SSDs are also subdivided into two parts internal and external.

Internal SSDs are used for internal storage of the system and configured with mother board or circuit board as system memory/storage.

External SSDs are used for storing of data outside the computer.

Due to heavy cost of the SSDs. External drives are not desirable as one can find a more capacity of HDD in the same price.

Summary:

As we know all about different storages we are using to store our data. The last two HDDs and SSDs are most important for computer.

If we compare HDDs and SSDs, than a computer with SSDs can perform faster by retrieving and uploading data faster than HDDs.

But a computer with HDDs will be cheaper and can store a large amount of data with higher storage capacity. The main reason behind is SSDs are costlier than HDDs. 

In same price we can get higher capacity of HDDs than SSDs.

Fastness of a computer depends on the type of Drive we have used inside it. As SSDs are more costly but faster than HDDs.

Computer manufacturers are opting for hybrid drives inside the computer. 

In Hybrid drives both SSDs and HDDs are fitted for smooth faster action and storing large amount of data than the normal computer.

So today we know about 5 types of computer storage . For more knowledge on HDD and SSD go through my other blog

Which is better HDD or SSD 

Please like and share my blogs.

Have a great day!

Computer And Its Usefulness – All You Need To Know

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Computer and its usefulness

COMPUTER AND ITS USEFULNESS

computer and

Computer is a very known word in our neighborhood.

So today we will explore about computer and its usefulness. 

Today I will give a basic idea about the Computer and types of computers around us. 

Today everything is technology oriented. This article is about all those people who all are having a little knowledge about computers. With this article you can enhance your knowledge of computer.

So first of all, What is a computer?

 In general, we all know that it is a machine.

Now question will come, What is a machine?

Machine is a technological tool invented by man to reduce the efforts of human beings at the time of doing various activities.

Computer first invented as a machine to help our predecessors to calculate. It was a calculating machine.e.g. Abacus.

But now we have come so far in the journey of inventions that computer and its technology works in every field of life. 

Starting from getting up from bed by morning alarm clock to comfortable sleep with the AC at Night and watching TV. Every where computer and its technology works and we come across it very frequently.

It helps in our education, Health, Science & Research, Business, Banking, Entertainment, Defence, Governance of Government system. In each and every field of life we have it with us.

Computer word is derived from a latin word “computare” which means calculation.

Computer letters generally stand for :

C- Commonly

O- Operated

M- Machine

P- Particularly

U- Used for

T- Technical

E- Educational

R- Research

Each letter of it defines the work and requirement of computer.

Now moving towards its invention period.

Charles Babbage

charles

 

Charles Babbage

Everyone knows about Charles Babbage, he is known as the father of first computer in our human history.

He was an English and born on 26 Dec 1791. He was a mathematician, mechanical engineer and an inventor.

He invented the first computer in the year 1837. It’s name was Difference Engine or Analytical Engine.

His passion was to invent a digital programmable machine. He used the concept of ALU, Basic flow control and Integrated memory concept. These are the basic concept of modern day computer.

PARTS OF COMPUTER

Mainly computer is divided into two parts. One is Hardware and another one is software.

Hardware:

All the components visible to our eye when we see a computer is called its Hardware. Examples are Monitor, keyboard, mouse, motherboard box, speakers, camera, printer etc.

Software: It is not visible to our eye. Like we can see our head but can you imagine how it works. Same concept is with computer we can see its hardware but can not see the software part.

 It is a programme developed by our software engineers and companies to run the machine. Examples are Codes, Operating systems, applications and various apps running inside our computer to give us a graphic friendly user interface. It helps us to communicate with computer and make it work as desired.

MODERN DAY HARDWARE COMPUTER MAIN COMPONENTS: 

Today we come across various computers with the following basic components attached to it like Input devices, Output devices, CPU (Central processing unit), Storage devices (Memory).

INPUT DEVICE:

All the devices which we are using to feed basic raw data in our computer are called input devices. Example of input devices are keyboard, mouse, scanner, voice input by mic, picture input camera, etc. Not only numbers and alphabets are coming under input parameters but letters, pictures, videos all comes under it.

PROCESSOR:

It is the main brain of a computer. It processes input data as per instructions given by user. But the instructions must be programmed in it to achieve the desired result. Central processing unit (CPU) is called the main processor of the computer.

OUTPUT DEVICES:

These are the components of a computer through which we can get the desired processed data from computer. Examples of output device are Monitor, Various types of Printers, headphones etc.

When we open a computer mother box, we can see different other things inside the component box.

MOTHER BOARD :

computer and mother board

It is a small thin plate of circuit designed board which contains CPU, memory, Connectors, Hard drive, Optical Drive, Expansion cards or PCI cards and their designated ports. This part connects with all the system components directly or indirectly.

CPU:

computer and CPU

Inside mother board CPU is a main component. It controls all functions of computer. If a system has a advanced CPU than its operational speed automatically increases. 

RAM :

RAM

RAM is known as Random access memory. It is one type of short term memory of computer. It remains with the system until the system is on. If we switch of a computer than this memory will be erased by system. For example if we are writing something in word file than we have to save it in between. If suddenly power cut happens than we may loss our data. By saving the word file in between we are sending the data from computers RAM to hard drive. In hard drive the data remains intact even after switching of our computer.

HARD DRIVES:

HDD

It is the main storage area of our computer where we store software, documents other files. 

Because of our inventions of storage techniques we are far developed.  From magnetic drums to present day Hard disk drives and Solid state drives are examples of this.

PSU:

It is the main component which controls power supply in our system. Its main job is to supply power to different parts of computer from main power supply.

PCI CARDS:

To upgrade our system there are various expansion cards are required. These are called Peripheral Components Interconnecting cards or PCI cards. 

 In mother board build in slots are there to incorporate these changes in system by inserting suitable cards as per our requirement. Examples are video cards or graphic cards, Sound cards, Network cards etc.

GENERATION OF COMPUTERS

To complete our knowledge we should know types of computers and the generations of computers till date.

1st GENERATION (1940 – 1955) use of Vacuum Tubes:

In this period vacuum tubes are used in circuit of computers. It generates enormous amount of heat. Magnetic drums are used as computer memory.

 The sizes of the computers were very big. Machine language like UNIVAC is used for these computers. It was not for general public.

2ND GENERATION (1956- 1963) use of transistors:

In this period transistors replaces vacuum tubes. Transistors were smaller in size and energy efficient than vacuum tubes.

 It shortens the size of the computer and makes it faster. Computer language like COBOL and FORTRAN is used for computers.

3RD GENERATION ( 1964- 1971) Use of integrated circuits:

In this period integrated circuits replaces transistors.  Transistors were integrated inside a silicon chip called semi conductors.  It was faster in processing.

 It made the computer more user friendly with Monitors, keyboards and operating system. Form this era computer is launched in market as business machines.

4TH GENERATION ( 1971- 1980) use of VLSI microprocessors:

During this period thousand of integrated circuits placed inside silicon chip in embedded form and microprocessors developed. 

VLSI means Very large scale integrated.  It increased the efficiency of the computer remarkably high.

5TH GENERATION (1981- 2002) use of ULSI microprocessors:

ULSI means ultra large scale integrated. In this period millions of circuits placed in a chip. It manifolds the efficiency of computer which we are using today.

 New technology like speech recognition, parallel processing used by computer manufacturers.

 6TH GENERATION (2003 Onwards ) use of artificial intelligence:

computer and CPU

New computers with their own intelligence are the main structure of this type of computers. AI (Artificial intelligence) can enhance the machine capabilities to a new height.

 Present day this technology is very costly and only government agencies are using it for enhancing their defence capability.

TYPES OF COMPUTERS

Now we will learn about types of computers.

Desktops:

DESKTOP

This is the normal system of computers we are keeping in our home, used in our schools, business and personal use.

 This type of computers comes with Monitor, keyboard, mouse, computer case, UPS.

Laptop:

LAPTOP

These are miniaturized computers with self battery powered. These are portable computers in nature  and can be easily transferred from one place to another.

Tablets:

computer and TABLET

These are hand held computers. It is smaller than a laptop and can be used with your hands. These comes with touch sensitive screens, touch pads, navigation system. Example are iPAD. 

Servers :

computer and SERVER

These are one type of more powerful computers which are used to control and manage a number of other computers, programmes and data.  

Smart Phone :

SMART PHONE

These are phones with advanced features in it. These are one type of computers with internet connection and various apps to connect with large Personal computers and servers.

Gaming Console:

GAMING CONSOLE

These are also one type of computers with which we can play video games in our computer and TV.  

Smart TV:

TV

Now a days TV not only plays the normal role but comes with different apps, applications with internet connectivity and voice input. Also comes with internal memory for various application uses.

Wearable gadgets:

GADGETS

Different types of gadgets we wear in our day to day life for our health and entertainment purpose are one type of computers. These gadgets come with memory and operating chip inside.

Robots:

ROBOTS

Robots are also one type of computers built to assist human in their jobs. Starting from car manufacturers to defence agencies of various governments are working in this field.

APPLICATION OF COMPUTERS

We are using computers in various activities of our day to day life.

Education :

Computer increases our learning performance. Today everything comes online. Various online courses are there to develop our knowledge and enhance our educational quality.

Health:

Today computer helps in diagnose our ailments.  Different computers and body scanners are used by medical practitioners to help us treat better and early. 

Even artificial lambs with chips are there to help disabilities.

Science and research :

Computer is used for various scientific researches, exploring our universe. 

It helps various scientists and research institutes to collaborate with other institutes globally.

Business and banking:

Computer helps us to keep our money safe and transferring it from one area to another without any hustle. It helps us to do cashless transactions.

In business it helps to increase productivity, competitiveness, marketing, retailing and stock trading.

Entertainment:

It helps in develop our movies, media contents and web/ TV serials. 

Today with the help of it we can access any TV content online and various other entertainment sources at any place anytime.

Defence:

Computer helps to safe guard our country. With the help of it we control our defense forces and assets. 

With the help of computers and artificial intelligence our defense satellites and drones work better. In future robots will go to war.

Government:

With the help of computers various departments in government work. Traffic, Tourism, Information and broadcasting (media), natural calamity monitor and control, education, defense forces mobilization and other activities are carried out properly with the help of it.

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF COMPUTER

ADVANTAGES:

computer and Advantages

Multitasking:

Computers can do multiple tasks in a very limited time frame. It can perform multiple operations, problems and equations at a time.

It can accept millions of instructions per second.

Speed:

With its speed it can help in completing our task in time. It can help to achieve our target rapidly and consistently. It can perform and execute operations very fast.

Cost:

It gives us low cost solution to our various problems. Saving man hours, cost of using labor etc. It helps us keep our valuable and more quantity data in smart way by using cloud tech.

Accuracy:

Computer performs faster and gives accurate data than man. With the help of this accuracy upto one part of trillion times can be achieved to take various satellite projections in time.

Data security:

With the help of it we can store our data/record in a number of secure places and can keep back up of it. But manually the records may be destroyed and worn out with time.

DISADVANTAGES:

computer and disadvantages

Less employment:

Computer can perform the job of various labors with very low cost. Hence companies install various computers to do jobs of man. It is harshly effecting employment of a country.

Prone to virus attack:

A computer virus is a destructive program which may harm your computer and steal your data. So extra precautions need to be taken by computer users. 

Like, antivirus installation, carefully opening email attachments, carefully using USB devices and pen drives and cautiously opening infected websites are some precautionary steps to be taken by users.

Prone to hacking:

hacking

In computer environment hackers can hack your system and steal your data and can blackmail you.  

Hence extra precautions like strong password and updated software are needed to be used by users.

Online Cyber crimes:

cyber crime

Various governments around the world have developed legal action against various cyber crimes. Cyber stalking, Identity theft, online transaction frauds are some examples of it.

No IQ:

 It has no IQ of its own. It depends on user’s instructions and programs to complete its task.

No Feeling/ emotions:

Computer is a machine, that’s why it has no feelings and emotions of its own. It is not attached to human emotions. But some robots are now created using artificial intelligence can imitate emotions.

Today you learn about computer and its usefulness, its different parts, types of computers, generation of computers, various applications of computers, advantages and disadvantages of computers.

If you found this article useful than like it share it and spread the knowledge.

Have a great day!

BEST LAPTOPS TO BUY FROM AMAZON

Laptop and computer buying guide

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Laptop and Computer buying guide
Laptop and Computer buying guide

Laptop and computer both are an essential part in today’s life style. Requirement of this is unlike food, shelter and clothing of basic items in life. 

So i bring this article on Laptop and Computer buying guide which will help you to decide how to buy a laptop and computer.

LAPTOP AND COMPUTER BUYING GUIDE

Starting from education, lifestyle, entertainment, business, socialization in every field of life we need it.

So this article Laptop and computer buying guide will enhance your knowledge on both these products.

Basic features of laptop and computer are as follows:

The features of it are basically divided into two main parts (i) Physical (ii) internal

First we will see the physical features of laptop and computer:

In physical features appearance or display is the main part of attraction. 

When the father of computer Charles Babbage invented computer, it was a size of two storied building. 

But today we can’t even think of something big like a box to keep in our house as a computer.

The main elements of physical features are compact, beautiful and stylish.

Laptop and computer Display:

Laptop and computer

 

Monitor

Laptop and computer

 

Laptop

When we see any computer we see to its screen/display. If we have to carry it with us to various spaces than light weight and small display is required. 

For students we should go for small 13 inch laptops. For business related activities slight bigger laptop about 17 inches is preferable. 

Because students can carry their laptops in their bags and can roam around various school/college campuses throughout the day. 

But for business related activities slight larger screen can be beneficial for displaying projects and various business strategies.

If we are keeping laptop/desktop only for home than bigger screens 24 inch and above will be beneficial for longer working time and better eye site.

 Also we should go for LED or OLED Monitors for better performance and energy saving.

Now rotation Laptops come with 360 degree rotation, 180 degree  and foldable like note pads hence If you are a junky in laptop, you should go for this type of features. 

But if for normal use than don’t go for such screens and buy simple screen.

Laptop and computer Weight:

Laptop and computer-weight

When it comes to weight, in other items people prefers more weight. But in Laptops and desktops we prefer light in weight. 

In general light weight laptops are more handy and transportable. So at the time of buying go for light weight Laptops.

Today desktops are also very light in weight as compared to the 90’s computers. Due to technological advancement in future we can see desktop PCs in our hand.

Keyboard:

Go for plane inline keyboards of laptops. Some laptops also comes with outward keyboards. 

In this type of keyboards in future you may face key loss due to some mishandling. But inline keyboards are sticky and useful.

Backlit keyboard features are also useful during night time for typing. Scissor switch mechanism is used for laptop keyboards which is brilliant in action.

For desktop compact keyboards with 101 key will be useful. There are mainly two types of keyboards for desktops. 

One is wired and standard another one is wireless and compact. Multi functional keyboards are also there for better and optimum use of keyboard.

 Touch:

Today some laptops come with touch screen and touch pad.  We can prefer this type of laptops. But touch screens use more power. 

Also high quality processors are required for this. More RAM also preferable for this type of laptops. Hence think carefully before buy.

CPU :

CPU

 

Central processing unit

Central processing unit is very essential part of laptop/desktop. It works as a brain of a system. It manages all the activities carried out by the computer. 

It controls inputs and give outputs as desired by the user and carry out the internal task of a system. In laptops C2D (core to duo) or multi core processors are preferable.

MULTI CORE

 

Multi core processor

Multicore means multiple controling units. So in single processing units only one core or CPU is there but in multi core various processing and controlling units are there for fast action. 

At present Dual core , Quad core and Octa core processors are there for laptops/ desktops. For example intel core i3, i5 and i7. Again in them generations are important.

If its generation is advanced than company must have upgraded it and it is useful to buy. 

Hence go for a higher version of CPU with latest generation so that u can keep it and use it for a longer period of time.

Size of the desktop CPU matters.

Today very compact design CPU are available in market which looks like a small portable cabinet and can be easily placed at any corner of your house.

RAM:

RAM

 

Random access memory

In storage requirements we need a more powerful RAM to operate smoothly. Now what is called as a RAM.

Basically there are two types of memories in computer. One is RAM and other one is ROM. 

RAM is called Random access memory and ROM is Read only memory.  RAM is a form of computer memory. 

In RAM we can erase memory and write new programs instantly. It can be used a number of times. By switching on and switching off the memory is created and again erased by system.

It is volatile in nature. It is typically used to store working data and machine code. 

It allows data items to be read or write in most the same amount of time irrespective of the physical location of the data inside the memory. 

But in other data storage devices such as HDD, CD-RW, DVD-RW and other magnetic tapes and drum memory, the time required to read and write data may very according to the medium and mechanical features of the device. 

At the time of purchasing Laptop/ Desktop, RAM capacity matters. Now a days 4GB RAM is minimum and provided by company in their systems. 

But according to your purpose you can extend it by telling to your vendor. Like if you require system for gaming and coding purpose than RAM capacity may be increased from 4GB to 8GB or 16 GB.

There are mainly two types of modern RAM.  One is SRAM (Static ram ) and DRAM (Dynamic RAM). 

SRAM is expensive but uses less power and faster than DRAM. So we must go for SRAM.

But in ROM the full form itself suggests that read only memory. Even after switching off the system the memory will not be deleted. 

The programs which we write in this will be saved and can not be deleted. It will help activation of programs faster. 

So that we can access them instantaneously. Computers have very less ROM space.

Laptop And Computer Hard Disks:

HDD

 

Hard disk drive

Thank god! Our technology in this field are so improved that large amount of data are stored in just some millimeters length of hard disk.  

For example HDD(Hard disk drives ) and SSD (Solid state drives).

Let me explain the features of HDD. HDD is a type of storage device. HDD first invented by IBM in the year 1953. 

Its first commercial use is started in the year 1957. It created a new level in the computer data hierarchy. Basically HDD devided  into two categories. 

One is external storage device and another one is internal. In laptops or desktops internal HDD are used. 

But for other storage purposes we can use external storage devices if our system data capacity is low or about to fill.  

You can get HDD external storage devices of various ranges starting from 256 GB, 500GB, 1TB and 2TB etc.

SSD

 

Solid state drive

In future HDD will be replaced by SSDs. Because SSDs are fast and durable. At present SSDs are expensive than HDD.     

In best systems maximum 256GB SSD are provided by companies. But in future SSD will be rule the computer system environment. It is advisable that you should go for SSD hard disk in system. 

With the help of SSDs you can perform the transfer of files and data in a very fast and effective way as compared to HDDs. You also can opt for SSHD, which means both use of SSDs and HDDs in your system side by side.

Laptop and Computer expansion cards like Graphics Cards:

It is also known as video cards. If you want to play video games than graphics cards will be an important feature of your laptop/desktop. 

Approximately 4GB graphics cards will be a good choice for your laptop/PC. Also for video editing purpose graphics cards are useful.

There are two types of graphic cards as per its setup in system. One is integrated graphics card and another one is dedicated Graphics card. 

In integrated graphics card computer uses your internal memory space from RAM which will make your computer slow. 

Hence always go for dedicated graphics cards. In dedicated graphics cards system memory is not getting consumed during operations.

Laptop and computer -UPS/ Backup system:

Laptop and computer- UPS

UPS stands for uninterrupted power supply.

For Laptops UPS is not required. In laptops internal battery is provided by system. If you buy good quality product than it may give you 4 to 5 hours battery backup and working time. 

Gradually the battery back up will drain and working time will reduce to 2 hrs approximately. In about 5 yrs of use you should change the battery of your laptop to keep it in working condition.

For Desktop PCs UPS is an essential element. In desktops a good quality of approximately 1 KVA power may be used for better back up of power supply system. 

It will give approx 15 to 30 minutes of battery backup during power failure. To avoid breakdown of system uninterrupted power supply is required for desktop PCs. Hence buy good quality of UPS. 

In case of poor quality of UPS your system operating system may crash and you have to install it again. So be careful.

Assembled and OEM provided:

Laptop and computer

OEM provided PCs and Laptops where both its hardware and software are provided by the company itself is effective and trustworthy. 

Hence go for OEM provided PCs and laptops. But if you are purchasing assembled PCs, than you have to be more cautious of fraudsters. 

Also different genuine softwares need to be purchased from vendors for uploading in your system. Without genuine software your valuable data may be lost or stolen.

Today various other supporting equipment are issued along with main system like Headphones, external hard disks , carry bags, extra keyboards and mouse by various vendors. 

Along-with this check for warranty extension and software support by vendors before buying laptop and computer.

So through this article Laptop and Computer buying guide you might get a comfortable idea on how to decide which one to buy.

Now you can decide yourself that which product will be good for you and which one you can buy.

In my future articles i will tell you all about some good products to buy and its technical specifications.

Have a great day!