Today we will see different features of monitors by the name “Monitors for PC (Part-2)”. At the time of buying any monitor from market, we will look into these features for our benefit.
Before starting the topic Monitors for PC,we should know that a monitor usually comprises of mainly four substances i.e. visual display, circuits, power supply and outer casing.
MONITORS FOR PC:
Now let’s look into the features of a general monitors for PC :
1.VIEWABLE IMAGE SIZE:
The quotable screen size is the full viewable size of a monitor. It is usually measured diagonally.
But the actual widths and heights are more informative since they are not affected by the aspect ratio in the same way.
|Screen size (measured diagonally in inches)||Resolution|
|19 ws||1440x 900|
|20 ws||1680x 1050|
2. Aspect ratio is the ratio of the horizontal length to the vertical length. Monitors for PC usually have the aspect ratio 4:3, 16:9, 21:9 are common.
Some common aspect ratios with their resolutions are listed below as per usage timeline:
|Aspect ratio||Common Resolutions support||Usage history|
|4:3||1024×768, 1600×1200||common until 2003, matches the aspect ratio of analogue TV, non-widescreen SDTV and early 35 mm film|
|5:4||1280×1024||common until 2003|
|3:2||2160×1440, 2560×1700||used in some portable PCs since 2013|
|16:10||1280×800, 1280x 720, 1920×1200||common between 2003 and 2010|
|16:9||1366×768, 1920×1080||common since 2008, matches the aspect ratio of HDTV and widescreen SDTV|
|21:9||2560×1080, 3440×1440||used in some professional and gaming displays since 2015 and common in ultra wide IPS display|
|32:9||3840×1080, 3840x 2160(ultra HD,4k) 5120×1440, 5120×2880 (5k) 7680×4320 (8k)||used in some high-end displays since 2017|
3. DISPLAY RESOLUTION:
It describes the visual dimension of any given display. It is expressed in terms of width and height of monitors for PC. Also it is comprised of specific number of pixels.
It is the number of distinct pixels in each dimension that can be displayed. For a given display size, maximum resolution is limited by dot pitch.
|Aspect ratio||Resolutions||Usage History|
|4:3||1024×768, 1600×1200||Early monitors for PC|
|5:4||1280×1024||Used upto 2003|
|16:10||1280×800,1280×720, 1920×1200||Common after 2003|
|16:9||1366×768, 1920×1080||Common after 2010|
|21:9||2560×1080, 3440×1440||Common after 2014|
|32:9||3840×1080, 3840x 2160(ultra HD,4k) 5120×1440, 5120×2880 (5k) 7680×4320 (8k)||Common after 2017 (8K is the latest technology)|
720p resolution or 1280x 720p, is the lowest of the HD capable resolution and widely used by HDTV broadcasters.
1080p resolution or 1920x 1080p, is a non-interlaced monitor resolution that is marketed as the first resolution to take full advantage of HDs complete range of capabilities. It is currently the standard resolution for televisions, internet streaming services, video games and smart phones.
1440p resolution or 2560x 1440p, known as Quad HD. It is 04 times stronger than the base HD variant. It is not fully widespread in nature. It is largely found within computing and Smartphone of well known companies like HTC, Samsung, and Apple.
4K resolution or Ultra HD
The name is derived from its horizontal pixel count. As 4k resolution is equal to 3840x 2160. It has 4 times more pixels than 1080p. Its usage is limited to internet video streaming, video projection and commercial television.
5K resolution or 5120x2880p and 8K resolution or 7680x4320p
These are being used for highest monitor resolution. These technologies are new in market and little bit costlier than old ones. These technologies are in process of integration with TVs, Monitors for PC and broadcast cameras.
But today companies are integrating small monitors with high resolution for better picture quality.
Hence if you are interested in small size monitors for PC than go for higher pixels and resolution.
4. CONTRAST RATIO:
It is the ratio of the luminosity of the brightest color (white) to that of the darkest color (black) that the monitor is capable of producing.
It is of two types
Static contrast ratio
It is the luminosity ratio comparing brightest and darkest color the system is capable of producing at any instant of time.
Dynamic contrast ratio (Advanced contrast ratio)
It is the luminosity ratio comparing brightest and darkest color the system is capable of producing over time when the picture is moving.
There is no official, standardized way of measuring contrast ratio for a system. Different manufacturers observe different techniques.
One of the measurements techniques is by Full on/Full off method, DLP projection method and ANSI method of measurement.
Generally Dynamic contrast ratio of display is better than its static contrast ratio. A plasma display with 4,000,000 : 1 static contrast ratio will show superior contrast to an LCD with CCFL backlight/LED with 30,000,000:1 dynamic and 20,000:1 static contrast ratio.
5. VIEWING ANGLE
It is the maximum angle at which images on the monitor can be viewed, without excessive degradation to the image.
It is measured in degrees horizontally and vertically.
Viewing specifications like 170/160 (1700 in horizontal viewing and 1600 in vertical)
Remember the general rule of viewing angles are IPS-type> VA- type >TN (Twisted Nematic) film .
In reality IPS (In plane switching) and VA (Vertical Alignment) type panels are the only technologies which can truly offer wide viewing fields and are commonly quoted as 178/178 (1780 in horizontal viewing and 1780 in vertical)
6. REFRESH RATE :
It is the number of times in a second that a display is illuminated. Maximum refresh rate is limited by response time.
It is also known as the number of times in a second that a display hardware updates its buffer.
It includes that the repeated drawing of identical frames.
Basically it is different from the term frame rate. Frame rate measecond that a display hardware updates its buffer.
It includes that the repeated drawing of identical frames.
Basically it is different from the term frame rate. Frame rate measures how often a video source can feed an entire frame of new data to display.
Example most movie projects runs at 24 frame rate means 24 FPS (frames per second) but has a refresh rate of 48 or 72 Hz .
Refresh rate of monitors are 60Hz, 120 Hz,144 Hz, and 240 Hz respectively.
In general, 60Hz means refresh rate 60 times per second.
So 240 Hz means Screen can refresh 240 times in a second.
7. RESPONSE TIME :
In lame language it is the time taken by your monitor to shift from one colour to another.
It is the time a pixel in a monitor takes to go from active (white) to inactive (black) and back to active (white) again, measured in milliseconds. Lower numbers mean faster transitions and therefore fewer visible image artifacts.
Typically a LCD response time is under 10ms (10 milli seconds), now a day’s monitors come with as fast as 01ms.
8. DOT PITCH:
It is also called as Line pitch, stripe pitch, phosphor pitch. It is the distance between sub-pixels of the same colour in millimeters.
In general, the smaller the dot pitch, the sharper the picture will appear.(It is measured in length)
But dots per inch is good with a larger number of dots per inch. Definitely closer spacing produces a sharper image as there are more dots in a given area.
So watch it carefully and see the specification thoroughly.
In general a typical entry level 0.28 mm diagonal monitor has a horizontal pitch of 0.24mm or 0.25 mm, and a good quality 0.26mm diagonal unit has a horizontal pitch of 0.22mm.
9. COLOR DEPTH :
It is measured in bits per primary color or bits for all colors.
It is also known as bit depth. It is the number of bits used to indicate the color component of a single pixel.
|High /Deep colors|
|30 bit||1.073 billion|
|36 bit||68.71 billon|
|48 bit||281.5 trillion|
10. COLOR GAMUT:
It is the range of colors that can be displayed in monitor. It is usually shown by an enclosed area of the primary colors of the device on the chromaticity diagram.
For example the primary colors of a monitor are RGB (Red, Green and Blue).
It is measured as coordinates in the CIE 1931 color space or CIE XYZ color system.
The three standards frequently cited in relation to monitors are AdobeRGB, sRGB, and NTSC.
Here sRGB and AdobeRGB are for LCD and monitors.
Out of these two AdobeRGB is characterized by a broader range than sRGB in G (Green ) domain.
It measures the amount of change in visual perception of two colors. It provides valuable insight into how color accurate a display/Monitor.
A person could not notice a Delta-E error that is less than 03. However a trained person can see down to errors of 1. Errors less than 01 are usually considered imperceptible.
In lame language Color accuracy is measured in delta-E. A delta-E of below 1 is imperceptible to the human eye. Delta-Es of 2 to 4 are considered good and require a sensitive eye to spot the difference.
Delta-E 2000 (dE2000) is the latest formulae updated by International commission on illumination.
So if you are going to use your monitor for some art and graphics and color preference is utmost than go for less Delta-E.
It is measured in candelas per square meter (cd/m2 also called a Nit).
Brightness is more often used in marketing literature, refers to the emitted luminous intensity on screen. The higher the number the brighter the screen.
Now we will know about what are the internal circuits preferable for our monitors.
The curve design mirrors the most common formats people use to consume content. Like reading our books, newspaper and watching movie in theater.
A display curvature is measured by the radius the curve would deliver if it formed a complete circle.
When measuring the curved monitors, the value of “R” is used to indicate the curvature radius. For example, a 4,000R curvature monitor would form a circle with a 4,000 mm radius.
Hence we know that the smaller the “R” value the higher the monitors curve.
14. Flicker free/ Less ghosting
Flicker free monitors will reduce eyestrain , making them more comfortable to use for longer periods of time.
It is different for person to person. Some people more sensitive to flicker and can easily get headache from it and some are less prone to headache.
The use of CCFL tubes for LCD monitors and regular on /off of LED backlight create flicker effect for some people.
Here refresh rate again comes into effect. Generally monitors with 120 Hz and more gives high refresh rates and due to speed flickering effect is not perceived by common eye. It also gives less ghosting effect inside working environment.
13. POWER CONSUMPTION
Older LCD monitors uses CCFL backlight technology hence required more power than todays monitors.
Today monitors are using 20-30% less power than the old LCD and CRT monitors. In terms of overall energy use by a computer with monitor may go upto 400 kWh. In other words, if we are environment lover, than we should try to reduce the use of energy in every means possible.
For 400 kWh energy 240 kilograms of carbon dioxide emission by coal based electricity plant. So reducing energy we can reduce the effect of carbon dioxide in atmosphere.
Power consumption is measured in watts. Hence at the time of purchase go for less watt and more star ratings monitors.
DIFFERENT PORTS OF MONITORS
AV input is a common label on a connector to receive (AV) audio/visual signals from electronic equipment that generates AV signals (AV output).
The then-leading IBM computer manufacturer developed the first connection standard, used today too, in 1987 for its PCs.
The blue trapezoidal interface worked perfectly with old CRT displays, thanks to its analog nature.
But then flat LCD digital screens appeared, resolutions began to grow, and the time-honored VGA port started to give up ground.
Today, it is more rarely integrated, but until now, an array of devices such as home players, projectors, TVs, etc. are still equipped with VGA ports. Probably, for several more years more, it will remain not as desirable, but still the ubiquitous standard.
For many years, computers were rarely equipped with this competitor of HDMI this in spite of the fact that DisplayPort has many strengths:
• Support for very high resolutions along with stereo signal;
• Audio transmission;
• Impressive length of cabling
This interface technology is even more profitable for manufacturers than the licensed HDMI: they do not need to pay the developers that would be necessary for users of HDMI.
Although in its first years of existence this type of connector was not particularly popular, now computers are more often equipped with a pair of Display Ports.
HDMI stands for High Definition Multimedia Interface.
In modern home entertainment devices, such as flat-panel TVs and Blu-ray players, HDMI is the standard connection interface.
As in the case of DVI, the signal is transmitted in digital format, which means maintaining the original quality.
Together with HDMI, HDCP (High Bandwidth Digital Content Protection) technology was developed to prevent the piracy and illegal copying of video materials.
The first devices with HDMI support appeared in late 2003. Since then, the standard has been changed several times; in particular, support of new audio and video formats has been added.
HDMI become so popular due to following reasons:
• Length of cabling up to 25-30 meters;
• Sound transmission (even multi-channel) together with video – no need for separate speakers;
• Convenient small connectors;
• Support for many different devices: players, TVs, projectors, DVRs, game consoles, etc.;
• Ultrahigh resolutions;
• 3D-picture; possible together with ultra-high resolutions (versions of HDMI 4b and 2.0).
In 2013, the specifications of version 2.0 were adopted; this standard is compatible with old wire connectors, but it supports resolutions that are more impressive and other excellent features.
This abbreviation stands for Digital Visual Interface. It transmits a video signal in digital format while maintaining high image quality.
In the mid-2000’s, DVI replaced the rapidly outdated VGA.
The ability to transmit both analog and digital signals, support for large (in that era) resolutions and high frequencies, and the lack of inexpensive competitors led to DVI becoming a standard port for today.
Low-cost video cards are equipped with the Single Link DVI. The maximum resolution, in this case, is 1920×1080 pixels – Full HD.
More expensive video card models have a Dual Link DVI interface. They can be connected to monitors with a resolution of up to 2560×1600 pixels.
The connection with the help of USB connector became possible when version 3.0 appeared.
Using the Display Link adapter, you can connect a monitor with a DVI / HDMI connector to the USB port of your laptop or computer.
Such ports are the standard for connecting external devices, which all manufacturers of these devices are eager for.
USB ports connect mice, keyboards, printers, scanners, modems, card readers, flash drives, cameras, cell phones, players, hard drives, optical drives, etc. This connector is needed for those who plan to work simultaneously with multiple monitors.
Mobile High-Definition Link (MHL)
It is an industry standard for a mobile audio/video interfaces that allows you to connect mobile phones, tablets and other portable (CE) devices to your monitor and give you more options than just your standard HDMI connection.
Now a day’s inbuilt speakers are common for high end monitors. But the sound quality of these speakers is not much effective. Hence you need to buy external speakers.
Like all these ports anti glare screen is also important. Anti Glare Screens reduces the overall stress on your eyes.
If you are a person who sits in-front of a computer most of the time then you will be better off with these type of screens.
Also at the same time make sure that your brightness is not too low and not too bright. It will save your eyes from reflections and brightness related problems.
So today we learn about different features of monitors through this article “Monitors for PC(Part-2). How to choose and buy a monitor by comparing these features.
For more knowledge on monitors go through my previous blog on “EVERYTHING YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT MONITORS (PART-1)”.
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