When we first see a computer we see to its monitor.Without monitors for PC, computer is only a box of electronic components.
It is the only things which gives us our desired output and help us monitoring our job in computer.
If we are unable to get the output from computer, than it is useless for us. So, it is the most important component of our computer. My article is about “Monitors for PC Part-1”.
MONITORS FOR PC (PART-1)
What is a monitor?
It is one of the output devices of a computer. It gives the output in a visual manner called display. Out of all the output devices monitor is the mostly used output device.
Monitor from its word we can think of what it is for. Monitors for PC defines something to keep a through watch on ongoing task or job.
The same thing is done by a monitor. The monitor keeps watch on the computer and tells users about its health and ongoing job inside a computer. It is also known as video display terminal (VDT).
HISTORY OF MONITORS FOR PC :
Early computers were fitted with a panel of electric bulbs, where the state of each particular bulb would indicate the on/off state of particular bits of registers inside the computer.
This type of monitoring was developed by the engineers operating the computer to monitor the internal state of the machine, so this panel of lights gradually known and called as ‘monitor’.
EARLY MONITORS FOR PC :
CATHODE RAY TUBE TECHNOLOGY (CRT MONITORS)
In early monitors for PC electric bulbs were used. Gradually the monitor changed its shape and cathode ray tubes (CRT) were used inplace of bulbs. ).
Prior to the general purpose computers in the late 1970s, it was common for a terminal (VDT) using a CRT to be physically integrated with a keyboard and other components of the system in a large chasis.
Some of the earliest computers like TRS-80 and C PET were having monochrome CRT display.
In the year 1977 colour features are introduced in CRT displays by Apple in their computer Apple II.
After that more graphically represented and sophisticated monitors for PC introduced in market.
First monitors for PC were introduced for data processing but gradually they were made to entertain the users.
After 1980 we can see a new era of monitors which were not only used for data processing but for entertainment purpose like TVs.
In 1981 IBM introduced the CGA (Colours graphics adapter) which could display four colors with a resolution of 320 x 200 pixels, or could produce 640 x 200 pixels with two colors.
In 1984 IBM introduced the EGA (Enhance graphics adapters) which was capable of producing 16 colors and had a resolution of 640 x 350.
Towards the end of the 1980s color CRT monitors that could clearly display 1024 x 768 pixels were widely available and very affordable.
The dynamic range of early LCD panels was very poor, and although text and other motionless graphics were sharper than on a CRT, an LCD characteristic known as pixel lag caused moving graphics to appear noticeably smeared and blurry.
1980s onwards, computers (and their monitors) have been used for both data processing and entertainment, while televisions have implemented some computer functionality in them too.
The common aspect ratio of televisions, and computer monitors, has changed from 4:3 to 16:10, to 16:9.
We will later know about what is aspect ratio.
Liquid crystal display technology (LCD MONITORS)
LCD monitors are those monitors which are using Liquid crystal display technology.
The first TFT-LCD display panel was prototyped by United States T. Peter Brody and team in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Throughout the 1990s, the primary use of LCD technology as computer monitors was in laptops.
Because of lower power consumption, lighter weight, and smaller physical size of LCDs it was costlier than CRT. This was only used in Laptops.
The first standalone LCDs appeared in the mid-1990s selling for high prices.
As prices declined over a period of years they became more popular, and by 1997 were competing with CRT monitors.
Among the first desktop LCD computer monitors for PC was the Eizo L66.
In the mid-1990s, the Apple Studio Display in 1998, and the Apple Cinema Display in 1999. In 2003,
TFT-LCDs (Thin film transistor- LCD) outsold CRTs for the first time, and becoming the primary technology used for computer monitors.
Advantages of LCD over CRT:
The main advantages of LCDs over CRT displays are:
- LCDs consume less power,
- take up much less space,
- considerably lighter.
- Active matrix TFT-LCD technology also has less flickering than CRTs, which reduces eye strain.
High dynamic range (HDR) technology has been implemented into high-end LCD monitors to improve color accuracy.
Since around the late 2000s, widescreen LCD monitors have become popular, in part due to television series, motion pictures and video games transitioning to high-definition (HD), which makes standard-width monitors unable to display them correctly as they either stretch or crop HD content.
Other advantages of widescreen monitors over standard-width monitors is that they make work more productive by displaying more of a user’s documents and images, and allow displaying toolbars with documents.
They also have a larger viewing area, with a typical widescreen monitor having a 16:9 aspect ratio, compared to the 4:3 aspect ratio of a typical standard-width monitor.
LIGHT EMITTING DIODE TECHNOLOGY(LED MONITOR):
Light emitting diode monitors are those monitors using light emitting diode technology with a flat screen and flat panel.
The first LED DISPLAY is considered to be developed BY James P. Mitchell in the year 1977.
Difference between LCD and LED monitor is the backlighting. LCD uses CCFL instead of LEDs.
Advantages of LED than LCD:
· More compact and thinner
· Less expnsive
· Broader dimming range
· More durable
· Run at a lower temperature
· Consume less power as few as 20 watts
· Higher dynamic contrast ratio
· Less environmental impact
ORGANIC LIGHT-EMITTING DIODE TECHNOLOGY (OLED MONITORS)
An organic light-emitting diode (OLED or Organic LED), monitor is a monitor using organic-LED technology.
The principle of this technology is that when current flows between a cathode and an anode, an emissive layer of organic molecules like polyanilin sandwiched between them become illuminated.
Passive matrix OLED screens consists of cells with opaque cathodes and transparent anodes laid perpendicular to one another in strips
Active Matrix OLED. These type of screens are having cells contains molecule layers and anodes arranged in small sheets (pixels), sandwiched between a large cathode sheet and integrated into TFT matrix.
Because of TFT matrix are more efficient than external circuits of PMOLED displays, AMOLED is extremely energy efficient in comparison.
In future we can see transparent displays or foldable displays using TOLED and FOLED technology.
1. No backlight required
2. Very thin transparent film than other monitos
3. Less power consumption than all monitors
4. Very high Contrast and real colour
5. Response time of 0.01MS
6. Refresh rate exceeding 1KHZ (1000hz) possible
7. Viewing angles
8. Flexible and transparent
Disadvantages of OLED:
Organic materials used in OLED display degraded over time, like other organic material.
Blue emissive pixels degraded more rapidly than their red and green counterparts, which leads to color balance issues.
Image retention issue, problem arises in static content display for an extended period. This problem can not be noticed in moving contents like TVs but for PCs it will be of serious concern.
Advancements in OLED:
Spray organic materials onto substrate surface and by using slightly different molecules, so that life time of blue pixels could be extended from 14000 to 60000 Hours or (approx 07 YEARS). It is called solution coating technology.
During trade shows SONY and Panasonic unveiled prototypes of large OLED displays with 4K (4096X 2160) resolutions. These monitors uses a technology called “SUPER TOP EMISSION” which incorporates an RGB pixel design and color filters.
QLED a non organic LED technology which will increase the life span of monitors and reduce the color degradation issues of future monitors.
Also some companies are working on hybrid technologies of monitors like QD-OLED, which is a mix of non organic and organic material use in LED cathode substrate.
So future of monitors in coming ages will be more interesting and amazing.
For more on monitors read my next blog.
Have a great day!