COMPUTER AND ITS USEFULNESS
Computer is a very known word in our neighborhood.
So today we will explore about computer and its usefulness.
Today I will give a basic idea about the Computer and types of computers around us.
Today everything is technology oriented. This article is about all those people who all are having a little knowledge about computers. With this article you can enhance your knowledge of computer.
So first of all, What is a computer?
In general, we all know that it is a machine.
Now question will come, What is a machine?
Machine is a technological tool invented by man to reduce the efforts of human beings at the time of doing various activities.
Computer first invented as a machine to help our predecessors to calculate. It was a calculating machine.e.g. Abacus.
But now we have come so far in the journey of inventions that computer and its technology works in every field of life.
Starting from getting up from bed by morning alarm clock to comfortable sleep with the AC at Night and watching TV. Every where computer and its technology works and we come across it very frequently.
It helps in our education, Health, Science & Research, Business, Banking, Entertainment, Defence, Governance of Government system. In each and every field of life we have it with us.
Computer word is derived from a latin word “computare” which means calculation.
Computer letters generally stand for :
U- Used for
Each letter of it defines the work and requirement of computer.
Now moving towards its invention period.
Everyone knows about Charles Babbage, he is known as the father of first computer in our human history.
He was an English and born on 26 Dec 1791. He was a mathematician, mechanical engineer and an inventor.
He invented the first computer in the year 1837. It’s name was Difference Engine or Analytical Engine.
His passion was to invent a digital programmable machine. He used the concept of ALU, Basic flow control and Integrated memory concept. These are the basic concept of modern day computer.
PARTS OF COMPUTER
Mainly computer is divided into two parts. One is Hardware and another one is software.
All the components visible to our eye when we see a computer is called its Hardware. Examples are Monitor, keyboard, mouse, motherboard box, speakers, camera, printer etc.
Software: It is not visible to our eye. Like we can see our head but can you imagine how it works. Same concept is with computer we can see its hardware but can not see the software part.
It is a programme developed by our software engineers and companies to run the machine. Examples are Codes, Operating systems, applications and various apps running inside our computer to give us a graphic friendly user interface. It helps us to communicate with computer and make it work as desired.
MODERN DAY HARDWARE COMPUTER MAIN COMPONENTS:
Today we come across various computers with the following basic components attached to it like Input devices, Output devices, CPU (Central processing unit), Storage devices (Memory).
All the devices which we are using to feed basic raw data in our computer are called input devices. Example of input devices are keyboard, mouse, scanner, voice input by mic, picture input camera, etc. Not only numbers and alphabets are coming under input parameters but letters, pictures, videos all comes under it.
It is the main brain of a computer. It processes input data as per instructions given by user. But the instructions must be programmed in it to achieve the desired result. Central processing unit (CPU) is called the main processor of the computer.
These are the components of a computer through which we can get the desired processed data from computer. Examples of output device are Monitor, Various types of Printers, headphones etc.
When we open a computer mother box, we can see different other things inside the component box.
MOTHER BOARD :
It is a small thin plate of circuit designed board which contains CPU, memory, Connectors, Hard drive, Optical Drive, Expansion cards or PCI cards and their designated ports. This part connects with all the system components directly or indirectly.
Inside mother board CPU is a main component. It controls all functions of computer. If a system has a advanced CPU than its operational speed automatically increases.
RAM is known as Random access memory. It is one type of short term memory of computer. It remains with the system until the system is on. If we switch of a computer than this memory will be erased by system. For example if we are writing something in word file than we have to save it in between. If suddenly power cut happens than we may loss our data. By saving the word file in between we are sending the data from computers RAM to hard drive. In hard drive the data remains intact even after switching of our computer.
It is the main storage area of our computer where we store software, documents other files.
Because of our inventions of storage techniques we are far developed. From magnetic drums to present day Hard disk drives and Solid state drives are examples of this.
It is the main component which controls power supply in our system. Its main job is to supply power to different parts of computer from main power supply.
To upgrade our system there are various expansion cards are required. These are called Peripheral Components Interconnecting cards or PCI cards.
In mother board build in slots are there to incorporate these changes in system by inserting suitable cards as per our requirement. Examples are video cards or graphic cards, Sound cards, Network cards etc.
GENERATION OF COMPUTERS
To complete our knowledge we should know types of computers and the generations of computers till date.
1st GENERATION (1940 – 1955) use of Vacuum Tubes:
In this period vacuum tubes are used in circuit of computers. It generates enormous amount of heat. Magnetic drums are used as computer memory.
The sizes of the computers were very big. Machine language like UNIVAC is used for these computers. It was not for general public.
2ND GENERATION (1956- 1963) use of transistors:
In this period transistors replaces vacuum tubes. Transistors were smaller in size and energy efficient than vacuum tubes.
It shortens the size of the computer and makes it faster. Computer language like COBOL and FORTRAN is used for computers.
3RD GENERATION ( 1964- 1971) Use of integrated circuits:
In this period integrated circuits replaces transistors. Transistors were integrated inside a silicon chip called semi conductors. It was faster in processing.
It made the computer more user friendly with Monitors, keyboards and operating system. Form this era computer is launched in market as business machines.
4TH GENERATION ( 1971- 1980) use of VLSI microprocessors:
During this period thousand of integrated circuits placed inside silicon chip in embedded form and microprocessors developed.
VLSI means Very large scale integrated. It increased the efficiency of the computer remarkably high.
5TH GENERATION (1981- 2002) use of ULSI microprocessors:
ULSI means ultra large scale integrated. In this period millions of circuits placed in a chip. It manifolds the efficiency of computer which we are using today.
New technology like speech recognition, parallel processing used by computer manufacturers.
6TH GENERATION (2003 Onwards ) use of artificial intelligence:
New computers with their own intelligence are the main structure of this type of computers. AI (Artificial intelligence) can enhance the machine capabilities to a new height.
Present day this technology is very costly and only government agencies are using it for enhancing their defence capability.
TYPES OF COMPUTERS
Now we will learn about types of computers.
This is the normal system of computers we are keeping in our home, used in our schools, business and personal use.
This type of computers comes with Monitor, keyboard, mouse, computer case, UPS.
These are miniaturized computers with self battery powered. These are portable computers in nature and can be easily transferred from one place to another.
These are hand held computers. It is smaller than a laptop and can be used with your hands. These comes with touch sensitive screens, touch pads, navigation system. Example are iPAD.
These are one type of more powerful computers which are used to control and manage a number of other computers, programmes and data.
Smart Phone :
These are phones with advanced features in it. These are one type of computers with internet connection and various apps to connect with large Personal computers and servers.
These are also one type of computers with which we can play video games in our computer and TV.
Now a days TV not only plays the normal role but comes with different apps, applications with internet connectivity and voice input. Also comes with internal memory for various application uses.
Different types of gadgets we wear in our day to day life for our health and entertainment purpose are one type of computers. These gadgets come with memory and operating chip inside.
Robots are also one type of computers built to assist human in their jobs. Starting from car manufacturers to defence agencies of various governments are working in this field.
APPLICATION OF COMPUTERS
We are using computers in various activities of our day to day life.
Computer increases our learning performance. Today everything comes online. Various online courses are there to develop our knowledge and enhance our educational quality.
Today computer helps in diagnose our ailments. Different computers and body scanners are used by medical practitioners to help us treat better and early.
Even artificial lambs with chips are there to help disabilities.
Science and research :
Computer is used for various scientific researches, exploring our universe.
It helps various scientists and research institutes to collaborate with other institutes globally.
Business and banking:
Computer helps us to keep our money safe and transferring it from one area to another without any hustle. It helps us to do cashless transactions.
In business it helps to increase productivity, competitiveness, marketing, retailing and stock trading.
It helps in develop our movies, media contents and web/ TV serials.
Today with the help of it we can access any TV content online and various other entertainment sources at any place anytime.
Computer helps to safe guard our country. With the help of it we control our defense forces and assets.
With the help of computers and artificial intelligence our defense satellites and drones work better. In future robots will go to war.
With the help of computers various departments in government work. Traffic, Tourism, Information and broadcasting (media), natural calamity monitor and control, education, defense forces mobilization and other activities are carried out properly with the help of it.
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF COMPUTER
Computers can do multiple tasks in a very limited time frame. It can perform multiple operations, problems and equations at a time.
It can accept millions of instructions per second.
With its speed it can help in completing our task in time. It can help to achieve our target rapidly and consistently. It can perform and execute operations very fast.
It gives us low cost solution to our various problems. Saving man hours, cost of using labor etc. It helps us keep our valuable and more quantity data in smart way by using cloud tech.
Computer performs faster and gives accurate data than man. With the help of this accuracy upto one part of trillion times can be achieved to take various satellite projections in time.
With the help of it we can store our data/record in a number of secure places and can keep back up of it. But manually the records may be destroyed and worn out with time.
Computer can perform the job of various labors with very low cost. Hence companies install various computers to do jobs of man. It is harshly effecting employment of a country.
Prone to virus attack:
A computer virus is a destructive program which may harm your computer and steal your data. So extra precautions need to be taken by computer users.
Like, antivirus installation, carefully opening email attachments, carefully using USB devices and pen drives and cautiously opening infected websites are some precautionary steps to be taken by users.
Prone to hacking:
In computer environment hackers can hack your system and steal your data and can blackmail you.
Hence extra precautions like strong password and updated software are needed to be used by users.
Online Cyber crimes:
Various governments around the world have developed legal action against various cyber crimes. Cyber stalking, Identity theft, online transaction frauds are some examples of it.
It has no IQ of its own. It depends on user’s instructions and programs to complete its task.
No Feeling/ emotions:
Computer is a machine, that’s why it has no feelings and emotions of its own. It is not attached to human emotions. But some robots are now created using artificial intelligence can imitate emotions.
Today you learn about computer and its usefulness, its different parts, types of computers, generation of computers, various applications of computers, advantages and disadvantages of computers.
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Have a great day!
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